The Appearance of the Kharijites
The turmoil of the Kharijites began during the time of the Prophet ﷺ. Abu Said al-Khudr (RA) said, (Appearance of the Kharijites)
When the Prophet ﷺ was apportioning the war booty, Dhu al-Khuwaysira, a man from Banu Tamim, said, “O Messenger of God! Be just!” The Prophet ﷺ said, “Woe to you! Who will be just if I am not just?” Umar bin al-Khattab (RA said, “[O Messenger of God!] Give me permission to strike his neck!” The Prophet a said, “Leave him, for he has compatriots; and you will belittle your prayers and fasting in comparison to theirs, but they shall pass through the religion just as an arrow passes through a hunted game”.’
THE LEGACY OF THE KHARIJITES BEGAN WITH DISRESPECT TO THE PROPHET ﷺ.
It was Dhu al-Khuwaysira’s disrespect to the Prophet ﷺ that laid the foundation for one of the worst trials faced by the Umma. And the militants and rebels who revolted against the authority of Uthman and Ali were a continuation of the evil precedent set by Dhu al-Khuwaysira. (Appearance of the Kharijites)
Imam Abu Bakr al-Ajurri wrote about this issue in his book Kitab al-sharia and penned a chapter called, ‘On the Condemnation of the Kharijites and Their Evil Way, and the Permissibility of Killing them, and the Reward for the One Who Either Kills them or is Killed By Them’. In it he stated: (Appearance of the Kharijites)
The first of them to appear was during the time of the Messenger of God ﷺ, and he was a man who accused the Prophet ﷺ of injustice as he apportioned the war booty at Jarana. He said, ‘O Muhammad! Be just, for I don’t think you are acting fairly’. So the Messenger of God ﷺ replied, ‘Woe to you! Who will be just if I am not just?’
Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani mentioned a report from Abd al-Razzaq al-Sanani who said,
‘Dhu al-Khuwaysira al-Tamimi’s real name was Hurqus bin Zuhayr and he was the founder of the Kharijites’.
Thus, the later-day Kharijites had the same mindset as their founder. Badr al-Din al-Ayni writes,
Al-Dhahabi said, ‘Dhu al-Khuwaysira, the one who said, “O Messenger of God! Be just”, is said to be Hurqus bin Zuhayr and he was the head of the Kharijites and was amongst the Kharijites who were slain during the Battle of al-Nahr. . . . In the exegesis of al-Thalabi, it is mentioned that ‘when the Messenger of Godﷺ was apportioning the war booty of Hawazin, Dhu al-Khuwaysira al-Tamimi, the head of the Kharijites came to him… .’