Once it fully understands consumers and the marketplace, marketing management can de-sign a customer-driven marketing strategy. We define marketing management as the art and science of choosing target markets and building profitable relationships with them. The marketing manager ’s aim is to find, attract, keep, and grow target customers by creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value.
To design a winning marketing strategy, the marketing manager must answer two important questions:
- What customers will we serve (what’s our target market)?
- How can we serve these customers best (what’s our value proposition)?
Selecting Customers to Serve
The company must first decide who it will serve. It does this by dividing the market into segments of customers (market segmentation) and selecting which segments it will go after (target marketing). Some people think of marketing management as finding as many customers as possible and increasing demand. But marketing managers know that they cannot serve all customers in every way. By trying to serve all customers, they may not serve any customers well. Instead, the company wants to select only customers that it can serve well and profitably. For example, Nordstrom profitably targets affluent professionals; Dollar General profitably targets families with more modest means.
Ultimately, marketing managers must decide which customers they want to target and on the level, timing, and nature of their demand. Simply put, marketing management is customer management and demand management.
Choosing a Value Proposition
The company must also decide how it will serve targeted customers how it will differentiate and position itself in the marketplace. A brand’s value proposition is the set of benefits or values it promises to deliver to consumers to satisfy their needs. At AT&T, it’s “Your World. Delivered.” whereas with T-Mobile, family and friends can “Stick together.” The diminutive Smart car suggests that you “Open your mind to the car that challenges the status quo,” whereas Infiniti “Makes luxury affordable,” and BMW promises “the ultimate driving machine.”
Such value propositions differentiate one brand from another. They answer the customer ’s question, “Why should I
buy your brand rather than a competitor ’s?” Companies must design strong value propositions that give them the greatest advantage in their target markets. For example, the Smart car is positioned as compact, yet comfortable; agile, yet economical, and safe, yet ecological. It’s “sheer automotive genius in a totally fun, efficient package. Smart thinking, indeed.”
Marketing Management Orientations
Marketing management wants to design strategies that will build profitable relationships with target consumers. But what philosophy should guide these marketing strategies? What weight should be given to the interests of customers, the organization, and society? Very often, these interests conflict.
There are five alternative concepts under which organizations design and carry out their marketing strategies:
- The production
- Societal marketing concepts.
The Production Concept
The production concept holds that consumers will favor products that are available and highly affordable. Therefore, management should focus on improving production and distribution efficiency. This concept is one of the oldest orientations that guide sellers.
The production concept is still a useful philosophy in some situations. For example, computer maker Lenovo dominates the highly competitive, price-sensitive Chinese PC market through low labor costs, high production efficiency, and mass distribution. However, although useful in some situations, the production concept can lead to marketing myopia. Companies adopting this orientation run a major risk of focusing too narrowly on their own operations and losing sight of the real objective satisfying customer needs and building customer relationships.
The Product Concept
The product concept holds that consumers will favor products that offer the most in quality, performance, and innovative features. Under this concept, the marketing strategy focuses on making continuous product improvements.
Product quality and improvement are important parts of most marketing strategies. However, focusing only on the company’s products can also lead to marketing myopia. For example, some manufacturers believe that if they can “build a better mousetrap, the world will beat a path to their doors.” But they are often rudely shocked. Buyers may be looking for a better solution to a mouse problem but not necessarily for a better mousetrap. The better solution might be a chemical spray, an exterminating service, a house cat, or something else that works even better than a mousetrap. Furthermore, a better mousetrap will not sell unless the manufacturer designs, packages, and prices it attractively; places it inconvenient distribution channels; brings it to the attention of people who need it, and convinces buyers that it is a better product.
The Selling Concept
Many companies follow the selling concept, which holds that consumers will not buy enough of the firm’s products unless it undertakes a large-scale selling and promotion effort. The selling concept is typically practiced with unsought goods that buyers do not normally think of buying, such as insurance or blood donations. These industries must be good at tracking down prospects and selling them on a product’s benefits.
Such aggressive selling, however, carries high risks. It focuses on creating sales transactions rather than on building long-term, profitable customer relationships. The aim often is to sell what the company makes rather than making what the market wants. It assumes that customers who are coaxed into buying the product will like it. Or, if they don’t like it, they will possibly forget their disappointment and buy it again later. These are usually poor assumptions.
The Marketing Concept
The marketing concept holds that achieving organizational goals depends on knowing the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions better than competitors do. Under the marketing concept, customer focus and value are the paths to sales and profits. Instead of a product-centered “make and sell” philosophy, the marketing concept is a customer-centered “sense and responds” philosophy. The job is not to find the right customers for your product but to find the right products for your customers.
Implementing the marketing concept often means more than simply responding to customers’ stated desires and obvious needs. Customer-driven companies research current customers deeply to learn about their desires, gather new product and service ideas, and test proposed product improvements. Such customer-driven marketing usually works well when a clear need exists and when customers know what they want.
The Societal Marketing Concept
The societal marketing concept questions whether the pure marketing concept overlooks possible conflicts between consumer short-run wants and consumer long-run welfare. Is a firm that satisfies the immediate needs and wants of target markets always doing what’s best for its consumers in the long run? The societal marketing concept holds that marketing strategy should deliver value to customers in a way that maintains or improves both the consumer ’s and society’s well-being. It calls for sustainable marketing, socially and environmentally responsible marketing that meets the present needs of consumers and businesses while also preserving or enhancing the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
Consider today’s bottled water industry. You may view bottled water companies as offering a convenient, tasty, and healthy product. Its packaging suggests “green” images of pristine lakes and snow-capped mountains. Yet making, filling, and shipping billions of plastic bottles generates huge amounts of carbon dioxide emissions that contribute substantially to global warming. Further, the plastic bottles pose a substantial recycling and solid waste disposal problem. Thus, in satisfying short-term consumer wants, the bottled water industry may be causing environmental problems that run against society’s long-run interests.
As Figure 1 shows, companies should balance three considerations in setting their marketing strategies: company profits, consumer wants, and society’s interests. UPS does this well. Its concern for societal interests has earned it the number one or number two spot in Fortune magazine’s Most Admired Companies for Social Responsibility rankings in four of the past five years.
Three Considerations Underlying the Societal Marketing Concept
Preparing an Integrated Marketing Plan and Program
The company’s marketing strategy outlines which customers it will serve and how it will create value for these customers. Next, the marketer develops an integrated marketing program that will actually deliver the intended value to target customers. The marketing program builds customer relationships by transforming the marketing strategy into action. It consists of the firm’s marketing mix, the set of marketing tools the firm uses to implement its marketing strategy.
The major marketing mix tools are classified into four broad groups, called the four Ps of marketing:
To deliver on its value proposition, the firm must first create a need-satisfying market offering (product). It must decide how much it will charge for the offering (price) and how it will make the offering available to target consumers (place). Finally, it must communicate with target customers about the offering and persuade them of its merits (promotion). The firm must blend each marketing mix tool into a comprehensive integrated marketing program that communicates and delivers the intended value to chosen customers.
This post contain the content of book Principles of Marketing