Biological Stages of Human Creation
In the previous post, we have examined the seven chemical stages of human creation in the light of Qur’ān and
modern science. These seven stages are inorganic matter, water, clay, adsorbable clay, old physically and chemically
altered mud, dried or highly purified clay and extract of purified clay. The Holy Qur’ān narrated these chemical stages fourteen centuries ago which modern science has recently known after the research of many centuries. This is
really a miraculous quality of the Qur’ān. Now in this post, we will study the biological stages of human creation.
|Creation of Adam||Creation of Man – Religion, and Science||Chemical Stages of Human Creation|
|Scientific Interpretation of the Chemical Stages of Human||Embryonic Development|
Biochemistry is a branch of both chemistry and biology which deals with the study of substances found in living organisms and of the chemical reactions underlying life processes. The prefix ‘bio’ is taken from the Greek word ‘bios’ which means life. The basic purpose of biochemistry is to know the structure and behavior of biomolecules. These are the carbon-containing compounds that make up the various parts of the living cell and carry out the chemical reactions that enable it to grow, maintain and reproduce itself and use and store energy.
A large number of biomolecules are present in the cell. The structure of every biomolecule determines what chemical reactions it is able to participate and hence what role it plays in the cell’s life processes. The most important classes of biomolecules are nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and liquids.
The responsibility of nucleic acids is to store and transfer genetic information. They are enormous molecules made up of long strands of subunits, called bases, that are arranged in a particular sequence. These are ‘read’ by other components of the cell and used as a guide in making proteins.
Proteins are large molecules built up of small subunits called amino acids. Using only 20 different amino acids, a cell constructs thousands of different proteins, each of which has a highly specialized role in the cell. The proteins of greatest interest to biomolecules are the enzymes, which are the ‘worker’ molecules of the cell. These enzymes serve as promoters or catalysts of chemical reactions.
Carbohydrates are the basic molecules of the cell. They contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in approximately equal amounts. Green plants and some bacteria use a process known as photosynthesis to make simple carbohydrates (sugar) from carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight. Animals, however, obtain their carbohydrates from foods. Once a cell possesses carbohydrates, it may break them down to yield chemical energy or use them as raw material to produce other biomolecules.
Liquids are fatly substances that play different roles in the cell. Some are held in storage for use as high-energy fuel;
other serve as essential components of the cell membrane. Many other types of biomolecules are also present in cells. These compounds perform such diverse duties as transporting energy from one location in the cell to another, harnessing the energy of sunlight to drive chemical reactions, and serving as helper molecules for enzyme action. All these biomolecules and the cell itself are in a state of constant change. In fact, a cell cannot maintain its health unless it is continually forming and breaking down proteins, carbohydrates and liquids; repairing damaged nucleic acids and using and storing energy. These active energy-linked processes of change are collectively called metabolism. One major cum of biochemistry is to understand metabolism well enough to predict and control changes that occur in cells. Biochemical studies have yielded such benefits as treatments for many metabolic diseases, antibiotics to combat bacteria and methods to boost industrial and agricultural productivity. These advances have been argumented in recent years by the use of genetic engineering techniques.