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Aspects Of Ecosystem – Environmental Science

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Aspects of Ecosystem

The ecosystem can be defined as any spatial or organizational unit including living organisms and non-living substances interacting to produce an exchange of materials between the living and non-living parts. The ecosystem can be studied from either structural or functional aspects.

  1. Structural Aspect

The structural aspects of the ecosystem include a description of the arrangement, types, and numbers of species and their life histories, along with a description of the physical features of the environment.

  1. Functional

The purposeful aspects of the ecosystem include the flow of energy and therefore the athletics of nutrients.


The non-living part of the ecosystem includes different kinds of habitats such as air, water and land, and a variety of abiotic factors. Habitat may be outlined because of the natural abode or neighborhood of an animal, plant or person. It includes all features of the environment in a given locality. For example, water is used as a habitat by aquatic organisms and it comprises three major categories-marine, brackish and freshwater habitats. Each of these categories may be subdivided into a smaller unit, such a freshwater habitat may exist as a large lake, a pond, a puddle, a river or a stream.


The land is employed as an environment for various terrestrial organisms. It includes several major classes of landmasses that are referred to as biomes. Biomes are distinct massive areas of earth inclusive of flora and fauna, e.g. deserts, prairie, tropical forests, etc. Soil is additionally used as an environment by the spread of microbes, plants, and animals.

Abiotic Factors

Among the main abiotic factors of the ecosystem are included in the following:

  1. The environmental condition factors as radiation, temperature, wind, water currents, rainfall.
  2. The physical factors as light-weight, fire, pressure, geomagnetism,
  3. Chemical factors as acidity, salinity and the availability of inorganic nutrients needed by plants.

Biotic or Biological Factors

The biological (biotic) factors of the ecosystem include all the living organisms-plants, animals, bacteria and viruses. Each kind of living organism found in an ecosystem is given the name of a species. A species includes individuals who have the following features:

  1. They are genetically alike.
  2. They are capable of freely inter-breeding and producing fertile offsprings.


In an ecosystem, there exist varied relationships between species. The relationship may be as under:

 1. Effects

Two species may have any of the following kind of effects:

      1. They will have a negative impact upon each other (competition)
      2. They will have a neutral impact (neutralism).
      3. They may have a beneficial effect (protocol operation and mutualism).
  1. Other kinds of Relationship

The species might combination, or separate, or show a random relationship to one another.


A population is a group of interacting individuals, usually of the same species, in a definable space.  In this way, we can speak of the population of deer on an island, and the population of fishes in a pond. A balance between two aspects determines the scale of a population of any given species:

  1. Its reproductive potential,
  2. Its environmental resistance.

In this means population size is decided by the relative variety of organisms more to or far from the cluster as under:

(i) Addition

Recruitment into the population may be performed of birth rate and immigration rate.

(ii) Removal

Loss from the population is a function of death rate and emigration.

Factors Regulating Population

Following factors does population regulation:

  1. Physical attributes of the atmosphere (e.g. climate)
  2. Food  (quantity and quality),
  3. Disease  (host-parasite relationships)
  4. Predation,
  5. Competition  (inter-specific and intra-specific).

An ecosystem contains numerous populations of different species of plants, animals, and microbes;  all of them interact with one another as a community and with the physical environment as well. A community or biotic community, thus, consists of the population of plants and animals living together in a particular place.


This post contains the content of the book Environmental_Science by Dr. Y. K. Singh below is the link of complete book Environmental_Science


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