The motherboard is the vital board holding the essential processing elements of a P.C. It permits all the elements of your pc to receive power and communicate with each other. It’s typically screwed to the case on its largest face, which might be the lowest or the facet of the case counting on the form factor and orientation. The shape factor describes the shape and layout of the motherboard. It affects wherever individual parts go and also the shape of the computer’s case. Connected on to the motherboard are the C.P.U., RAM, expansion cards, networking, video, and audio parts.

Figures: Overhead: An older motherboard, Lower: the Intel Z77 motherboard.

ATX (Advanced Technology eXtended) is a motherboard type factor specification developed by Intel in 1995. A large ATX board is twelve × 9.6 in (305 × 244 mm). It was the first big change in the computer case, motherboard, and power supply design in many years, improving the standardization and interchangeability of parts. The description defines the key mechanical dimensions, mounting purpose, I/O panel, power and connector interfaces between a pc case, a motherboard, and a power provide. The description has been revised varied times since 1995, the foremost recent being version 2.3, released in 2007.

Standards: ATX, standards for smaller boards: microATX, FlexATX, and mini-ITX.

Figure: the Intel Z77 motherboard (Plan View). (Intel, 2014b)

1. 12V Processor Core Voltage
Connector (8 pins)
15. POST Code LED Display 29. High Definition (HD) Audio AC97 Front Panel Header
2. Voltage Regulator status LEDs 16. Front Panel Header 30. CMOS RAM Battery
3. Processor Socket (LGA1155) 17. USB 2.0 Dual-Port Header (black) 31. Rear Chassis Fan Header (4 pins)
4. Processor Fan Header (4 pins) 18. Chassis Intrusion Header 32. 5 port audio with S/PDIF
5. Memory Slots 19. BIOS Configuration Jumper 33. Intel Gigabit (10/100/1000 Mb/s) Ethernet LAN
6. Front Chassis Fan Header (4 pins) 20. Consumer IR (CIR) headers 34. IEEE 1394a port
7. Onboard Speaker 21. USB 3.0 Front Panel Connector
35. External Serial ATA (eSATA) port (3 Gb/s)
8. Main Power Connector (2×12 pin) 22. S/PDIF out Header (4 pins) 36. USB ports:
4 USB 3.0 ports (blue)
2 USB 2.0 ports (black)
9. Onboard Power Button 23. Diagnostic Status LEDs 37. Graphics ports
10. +5V Standby Power Indicator LED 24. Auxiliary chassis fan header (4 pins) 38. Back to BIOS button
11. SATA 3.0 Connector (black) 25. IEEE 1394a front panel header 39. PS/2 port
12. SATA Ports:
(4 SATA 6.0 ports (blue & grey)
(2 SATA 3.0 ports (black)
26. PCI Express 2.0 x1 connector 40. USB 2.0 ports (yellow)
2 high current/ fast charging
13. Intel z77 Express Chipset 27. Conventional PCI bus connector 41. Voltage Regulator modules
with heat sinks
14. Alternate Front Panel Power LED
28. PCI Express 3.0 x16 connector


HEAT SINKS, FANS PC POWER SUPPLY Graphics, Sound and Network Card

This post contains the content of book Computer Hardware_ Hardware Components and Internal PC Connection