anatomy 121

Anatomy, Muscle Action And Joint Action – Kinesiology


Bones provide attachment points and support for muscles. Bones area unit connected on by tissue stated as Ligaments. Tendons are animal tissue and fix muscle with bone. each has some physical property and doesn’t heal on its own if torn. associate inflamed sinew is named Rubor and is caused by overstretching the sinew. animal tissue is additionally animal tissue, however, it isn’t elastic. animal tissue is employed to cushion the junction of 2 bones. (Anatomy)

The body is split into 3 anatomical planes the Frontal, Sagittal, and Horizontal. The Frontal plane divides the body from front to back. The mesial plane divides the body down the middle or vertically. The Horizontal plane divides higher and lower. The table below lists the anatomical term and also the corresponding description.

Anterior front
Posterior back
Medial inside
Lateral outside
Supine  face up
Unilateral one side
Bilateral both sides
Prone face down
Superior  upper
Inferior  lower


Anatomy Chart

Anatomy ChartAnatomy Charts courtesy of INTERNATIONAL FITNESS ASSOCIATION. –

Muscle Fiber Types

Muscle Action

The 3 kinds of contraction area unit Isometric, Isotonic, and Isokinetic. Isometric is outlined as that kind of contraction wherever muscle tension and muscle length stay constant. This kind of exercise provides muscle strength gains however solely at the joint angle command throughout the exercise. Isotonic contraction is outlined as that wherever the muscle tension remains constant and muscle length varies. Isokinetic contraction is outlined as variable tension and length. Anatomy

In every exercise, there are a unit four main functions of the associated muscles, Agonists (prime movers), Antagonists, Stabilizers and Assistors. The Agonists area unit typically the muscle we have a tendency to area unit sweat. The Antagonist is that the opposing muscle and acts in distinction to the agonist. The Stabilizer muscles area unit those who hold a joint in situ in order that the exercise is also performed. The Assistors facilitate the Agonist muscle doing the work. The stabilizer muscles don’t seem to be essentially moving throughout the exercise, however, give stationary support. Anatomy

For example, once doing skeletal muscle curls, the skeletal muscle area unit the agonists, the striated muscle area unit the antagonists and varied muscles as well as the deltoids area unit the stabilizer muscles. However, once doing a striated muscle pushdown, currently the striated muscle area unit the agonists and also the skeletal muscle area unit the antagonists. Once more the deltoid muscles area unit the stabilizer muscles.

The agonist/antagonist relationship changes looking on that muscle is anticipated to try and do the work. However, each muscle cluster has associate opposing muscle clusters. the subsequent table lists muscles and their opposing counterparts:

Biceps Triceps
Deltoids Latissimus Dorsi
Pectoralis Major Trapezius/Rhomboids
Rectus Abdominis Erector Spinae
Iliopsoas Gluteus Maximus
Quadriceps Hamstrings
Hip Adductor Gluteus Medius
Tibialis Anterior Gastrocnemius


In relevancy Agonist and Antagonist, this on top of the list might simply be reversed once sweat the muscles within the right-hand column. Muscle balance is the relationship between the Agonist and Antagonist. it’s necessary to possess a muscle balance to stop injury. If the Agonist is far stronger than the Antagonist is, the Agonist will overpower and injure the Antagonist.

Tendons area unit created from animal tissue and connect muscle to bone. rubor is associated with inflammation of the sinew because of overuse. Stretching or tearing of the sinew is stated as a strain. A strain may be a muscle or sinew injury.

Ligaments are animal tissue and connect bone to bone. they’re less versatile than tendons. The perform of ligaments is to limit the joint movement at intervals of traditional parameters. once a ligament is overstretched or torn it’s referred to as a sprain. Since ligaments haven’t got a system, could they} take an awfully very long time to repair or may ne’er come back to their original length. this may cause abnormal joint movement and even animal tissue and bone wear because of this unrestricted movement.

Joint Action

Joints give a pivot purpose for muscles to try and do work. There are unit six kinds of joint action:

Flexion decreasing joint angle Biceps Curl
Extension increasing joint angle Triceps Extension
Abduction movement away from body centerline Lateral Raises (Deltoids)
Adduction the movement toward body centerline Horizontal Flyes (Pectorals)
Rotation rotation about and axis Twisting the Arm
Circumduction 360-degree rotation Arm circle around


Aerobic and Anaerobic – Energy Systems



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